Creating a “loneliness map” could help target those who are at risk of loneliness.
Geeks often describe programs as being “open source” or “free software.” If you’re wondering exactly what these terms mean and why they matter, read on. (No, “free software” doesn’t just mean that you can download it for free.)
Whether a program is open-source or not doesn’t just matter to developers, it ultimately matters for users, too. Open-source software licenses give users freedoms they would not otherwise have.
Image Credit: Quinn Dombrowski on Flickr
The Definition of Open Source
If a program is open-source, its source code is freely available to its users. Its users – and anyone else – have the ability to take this source code, modify it, and distribute their own versions of the program. The users also have the ability to distribute as many copies of the original program as they want. Anyone can use the program for any purpose; there are no licensing fees or other restrictions on the software. The OSI has a more detailed definition of “open source” on its website.
For example, Ubuntu Linux is an open-source operating system. You can download Ubuntu, create as many copies as you want, and give them to your friends. You can install Ubuntu on an unlimited amount of your computers. You can create remixes of the Ubuntu installation disc and distribute them. If you were particularly motivated, you could download the source code for a program in Ubuntu and modify it, creating your own customized version of that program – or of Ubuntu itself. Open-source licenses all allow you to do this, while closed-source licenses place restrictions on you.
The opposite of open-source software is closed-source software, which has a license that restricts users and keeps the source code from them.
Firefox, Chrome, OpenOffice, Linux, and Android are some popular examples of open-source software, while Microsoft Windows is probably the most popular piece of closed-source software out there.
Open Source vs. Free Software
Open source applications are generally freely available – although there’s nothing stopping the developer from charging for copies of the software if they allow redistribution of the application and its source code afterwards.
However, that’s not what “free software” refers to. The “free” in free software means “free as in freedom,” not “free as in beer.” The free software camp, led by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation, focuses on the ethics and morals of using software that can be controlled and modified by the user. In other words, the free software camp focuses on user freedoms.
The open-source software movement was created to focus on more pragmatic reasons for choosing this type of software. Open-source advocates wanted to focus on the practical benefits of using open-source software that would appeal more to businesses, rather than ethics and morals.
Ultimately, both open-source and free software advocates are developing the same type of software, but they disagree on the messaging.
Types of Licenses
There are many different licenses used by open-source projects, depending on which the developers prefer for their program.
The GPL, or GNU General Public License, is widely used by many open-source projects, such as Linux. In addition to all the above definitions of open-source, the terms of the GPL specify that, if anyone modifies an open-source program and distributes a derivative work, they must also distribute the source code for their derivative work. In other words, no one can take open-source code and create a closed-source program from it – they must release their changes back to the community. Microsoft referred to the GPL as being “viral” for this reason, as it forces programs that incorporate GPL code to release their own source code. Of course, a program’s developers can opt not to use GPL code if this is a problem.
Some other licenses, such as the BSD license, place less restrictions on developers. If a program is licensed under the BSD license, anyone can incorporate the program’s source code into another program. They don’t have to release their changes back to the community. Some people see this is being even more “free” than the GPL license, as it gives developers the freedom to incorporate the code into their own closed-source programs, while some people see it as being less “free” because it takes rights away from the end users of the derived program.
Benefits for Users
This isn’t all dry, unimportant stuff that only matters to developers. The most obvious benefit of open-source software is that it can be had for free. The example of Ubuntu Linux above makes that clear – unlike Windows, you can install or distribute as many copies of Ubuntu as you want, with no restrictions. This can be particularly useful servers – if you’re setting up a server, you can just install Linux on it. if you’re setting up a virtualized cluster of servers, you can easily duplicate a single Ubuntu server. You don’t have to worry about licensing and how many instances of Linux you’re allowed to run.
An open-source program is also more flexible. For example, Windows 8’s new interface disappointed many long-time desktop Windows users. Because Windows is closed-source, no Windows user can take the Windows 7 interface, modify it, and make it work properly on Windows 8. (Some Windows users are trying, but this is a painstaking process of reverse engineering and modifying binary files.)
When a Linux desktop like Ubuntu introduces a new desktop interface that some users aren’t fans of, users have more options. For example, when GNOME 3 was released, many Linux desktop users were equally turned off. Some took the code to the old version, GNOME 2, and modified it to make it run on the latest Linux distributions – this is MATE. Some took the code to GNOME 3 and modified it to make it work in a way they preferred – this is Cinnamon. Some users just switched to existing alternative desktops. If Windows was open-source, Windows 8 users would have more choice and flexibility. Just take a look at CyanogenMod, a popular, community-driven distribution of Android that adds features and support for new devices.
Open-source software also allows developers to “stand on the shoulders of giants” and create their own software. Witness Android and Chrome OS, which are operating systems built on Linux and other open-source software. The core of Apple’s OS X – and therefor iOS – was built on open-source code, too. Valve is furiously working on porting their Steam gaming platform to Linux, as this would allow them to create their own hardware and control their own destiny in a way that isn’t possible on Microsoft’s Windows.
This isn’t an exhaustive description – entire books have been written on this subject – but you should now have a better idea of what open-source software actually is and why it’s useful to you.
The loneliness epidemic: We’re more connected than ever – but are we feeling more alone?
Just as your ways of relating to your grandchildren grow with them, so will the ways you use Skype. Almost anything that you do with your grandchildren in person can be adapted for video chat using Skype. You can even share a special occasion with your grandchildren when you’re not able to be there in person.
The full article can be found at: http://www.howtogeek.com/209450/how-you-and-your-neighbors-are-making-each-other%E2%80%99s-wi-fi-worse-and-what-you-can-do-about-it/
Wi-Fi networks interfere with each other. Older Wi-Fi standards are even worse about this, so your old Wi-Fi hardware isn’t just hurting your network — it’s interfering with your neighbors, too.
All that interference is bad for everyone’s network, even yours. Unless you live out in the country with no one else around, this is something you need to think about.
Wi-Fi Channel Interference
All routers must operate their Wi-Fi network on one of several “channels” — different ranges of frequencies the wireless network can operate on. If you have multiple Wi-Fi networks near each other — and you probably do unless you don’t live near anyone else — they should ideally be on different channels to reduce interference.
Modern routers often try to automatically choose the best Wi-Fi channel for the least interference, but you can get some benefit from analyzing the airwaves around you and choosing the least congested Wi-Fi channel. If you and your neighbors are using the same Wi-Fi channel — especially if their wireless router is very close to yours — your Wi-Fi networks are making each other’s worse. Follow our guide to choosing the best Wi-Fi channel for instructions.
2.4 GHz vs. 5 GHz
Older 802.11b/g/n networks use the 2.4 GHz range. These networks in common use are not ideal for Wi-Fi channel interference. While there are 14 different available wireless channels designated for use in this range, they actually overlap quite a bit. Channels 1, 6, and 11 are most frequently used so Wi-Fi networks on adjacent channels don’t interfere with each other. If you have more than three wireless networks in an area — and you probably do — they’re just interfering with each other. You can’t really do anything about that unless you want to coat the walls of your house or apartment with tinfoil to ensure your neighbors’ Wi-Fi signals don’t interfere with yours.
Modern Wi-Fi standards operate on 5 GHz instead of 2.4 GHz. 802.11ac operates on only 5 GHz. 802.11n routers can operate on either 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz, but not both — and they’ll typically be set up to operate on 2.4 GHz. (Note: Single-radio 802.11n routers can only operate on the 5 GHz or 2.4 GHz range. However, there are multiple-radio 802.11n and 802.11ac routers that can create both 2.4 GHz interfaces for your older devices and 5 GHz ones for your newer devices.)
Where 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi offers only three non-overlapping channels, 5 GHz Wi-Fi offers 23 non-overlapping channels. This doesn’t mean interference is eliminated — if you’re sharing one of those channels with another 5 GHz WI-Fi network nearby, there will be interference — but it’s a much less congested range with more room for various Wi-Fi networks to spread out and not interfere with each other. If you and a bunch of your neighbors are all using 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi, you’re all getting a lot less interference if you upgrade to 5 GHz Wi-Fi networks.
Devices Interfering on 2.4 GHz
A variety of reasonably common devices also interfere on the 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi spectrum. These are an obstacle to having a fast, reliable Wi-Fi network. Even if you don’t have any of these devices, your neighbors might have them — although the interference will be worst when they’re closest.
Many cordless phones operate on the 2.4 GHz range, as do a variety of wireless “baby monitors.” Microwave ovens can also add interference here. Not all phones or baby monitors will interfere — only the 2.4 GHz ones. But, while you might be able to avoid these devices in your own apartment or house, your neighbors might have other ideas. There’s less interference on the 5 GHz range, which is another good reason to upgrade.
802.11b Devices Slow Down Newer Networks
Just having a device running an older wireless standard nearby won’t slow down your network, despite rumors otherwise. If your neighbor is using an ancient 802.11b device on their network, your network won’t see any slow-downs because of that — assuming they’re on a different wireless channel
Using an old 802.11b device on a modern 802.11g or 802.11n network will slow down the network as modern devices have to resort to dirty hacks to avoid breaking the old 802.11b device. If you have an 802.11b device on the same network, that’ll slow things down for everyone on that network. If there are multiple networks on the same wireless channel, the 802.11b device can also slow down networks on the same channel.
On the other hand, using an 802.11g device on a faster 802.11n network won’t slow things down in the same way. More modern wireless network standards handle this in a more sane way, so you only really need to worry about replacing those ancient 802.11b devices. And yes, those devices are quite ancient in consumer technology terms — 802.11b came out back in 1999, and it was replaced by 802.11g back in 2003.
Your neighbors can use 802.11b devices all they like without bothering you — assuming your Wi-Fi network isn’t sharing a channel with theirs. This is yet another reason to switch to 5 GHz Wi-Fi, where those 802.11b devices can’t go.
No, you probably won’t upgrade just to help your neighbors. But that interference isn’t just bad for your neighbors — it’s two-sided, and it means your neighbors’ Wi-Fi is also interfering with yours. Upgrading helps everyone.
Beware of this new ‘Phishing’ scam and be ready for those based around the new pension reforms: –
DVLA warns the public of an email scam that asks drivers to verify their driving licence and vehicle tax details via an online link.
In some cases the email quotes a 16 digit reference number, telling drivers they’re due a refund for some of the payment made when they taxed their vehicle. They’re then asked to verify their bank details via an online link.
The email also claimes to have been sent from DVLA, appears to be an attempt to trick drivers into providing bank details. DVLA have not sent out an email asking customers to provide this information. DVLA does not ask customers to provide bank details via email.
We’re aware that some members of the public have received these emails and we strongly advise anyone who receives one of these or any similar email, to ignore it and not to follow the instructions given.
The government, led by Cabinet Office’s Government Digital Service (GDS), will continue to investigate reports of organisations which may be actively misleading users about their services or acting illegally, taking swift action when necessary. By using the online driving licence or vehicle tax transactions on GOV.UK you can be sure that you are dealing directly with DVLA.
As we know, the rate of bank closures has increased and is justified by the move to online and other digital banking. The Government has requested that banks should minimise the effect of branch closures.
and government view at https://www.gov.uk/government/news/banks-agree-protocol-on-branch-closures
Banks sign up to closure guidelines
An agreement to help prevent consumers being left out in the cold when their local bank shuts down has been signed up to by major high street banks, consumer groups and the Government.
Banks have signed up to a protocol designed to minimise the effect of branch closures Banks have signed up to a protocol designed to minimise the effect of branch closures
The British Bankers’ Association (BBA) has agreed guidelines after Business Secretary Vince Cable wrote to banks in December, calling for clear procedures for the steps they would take when closing a branch to ensure customers in rural and deprived areas do not lose out.
The protocol, which will be reviewed by an independent reviewer after one year, commits the banks to work with local communities to establish the impact of a branch closure before it takes place, find suitable alternative provision and put satisfactory alternative banking services in place before a branch is closed.
Options for possible satisfactory alternatives would include free to use cash machines, alternative branches, and Post Office branches and mobile banking arrangements.
A majority of the banks’ customers can already access banking services via the Post Office, which has more than 11,500 branches.
This role is set to increase with the BBA, banks and the Post Office negotiating to standardise the services available to the banks’ customers, including small business customers, at Post Office branches.
Anthony Browne, chief executive of BBA, said: “The way we bank is changing, with millions of us now embracing a range of digital services to spend, move and manage our money.
“Because of this change in customer behaviour banks are investing more heavily in innovative technology to make banking quicker and more convenient. This means that the number of branches is falling.”
He said the agreement ” will make sure customers still have banking services close at hand if a branch closes. Communities will be given fair notice of any closure and clarity about the alternative places and ways to bank”.
Nick Kennett, director of Post Office Financial Services said: “The Post Office is unique in providing people with easy access to banking services throughout the UK.
“The banks can establish commercial arrangements with us, so that we can meet the needs of both their personal and businesses customers.”
New research from consumer group Which? has found that f our in 10 (41%) people still use the local branch of their high street bank at least once a month.
The survey of more than 2,000 people found that 37% would find it an inconvenience if their local high-street bank branch closed and three in ten (30%) would consider switching banks, showing the importance of introducing alternatives for customers.
The most popular alternatives for consumers, if their high-street bank closed, were found to be ATMs providing other services, the bank operating in another location such as a supermarket, banking provided in the Post Office, or shared branches.
Banking in a nearby location such as a supermarket was the most popular option among older age groups. Which? found that 47% of 55 to 64-year-olds and 46% of people aged 65 and over would like to see this, compared to 39% for all age groups.
In rural areas, banks providing services at the Post Office or in another location were the most popular alternatives, favoured by 41% of people.
Which? executive director, Richard Lloyd, said: “Today’s agreement is the first step towards ensuring banks will not leave customers out in the cold when branches close. It will provide some reassurance to vulnerable people who often rely on face-to-face banking and aren’t able to bank online or travel to other branches.
“We expect the banks to stick to their word and ensure all consumers can access vital banking services, no matter where they live. Next year’s independent review of this agreement will be an important test of the banks’ commitment to regaining the trust of consumers.”
Mr Cable said: “People are increasingly banking online, but it’s not necessarily an option for everyone and we must ensure people are not left behind. This industry agreement recognises those concerns, commits to finding alternatives and is a major step forward.”
A stronger North Halifax launches Staying Well
‘Together we are stronger’… A strapline well suited as 55 local residents and representatives of various community organisations in North Halifax got together to launch a new project aimed at tackling loneliness and social isolation in older people.
Amongst those attending the session at Threeways on Thursday were representative from local activity groups, community organisations, churches, health, council, fire and housing services, and sports clubs.
Lonely individuals are more likely to visit their GP, have higher use of medication, are more likely to need long term care and are at a higher risk of high blood pressure, depression and falls.
The Staying Well project is all about improving the health and wellbeing of our communities, reducing demand on GP practices and hospitals, and will see older people connected to services and activities close to home.
“The statistics about older people and loneliness can be frightening but we also know that social interaction and friendships can reduce vulnerability and help people to recover when they do fall ill” Helen Enevoldson, Staying Well worker
The Staying Well project is funded by the Calderdale Clinical Commissioning Group and is being piloted in 4 areas of Calderdale; North Halifax, Elland, Hebden Bridge and West Central Halifax. Community organisations will manage delivery of the project in each area.
North Halifax Partnership and Threeways Centre were asked to work together to build a community partnership capable of delivering the project in North Halifax, that will oversee and drive the project, and will be responsible for building on existing activities and commission new initiatives from a £50,000 community budget.
Colin Davies from Threeways said,
“We think that local people are best placed to know what is already available in our communities, where the gaps in services are, and are the people most qualified to say where we should be focusing services in the future.”
“I’m really pleased with the amount of local people that have come along to Threeways today. The Staying Well project presents a real opportunity for North Halifax to do things differently.
Vicky McGhee from North Halifax Partnership, and Ovenden and Mixenden Initiative said,
“Loneliness has a huge impact on the whole of society. We must take responsibility for the vulnerable people in our community and a whole lot more can be achieved if we work together.
“We want everyone who lives or works in North Halifax to see themselves as a member of the North Halifax Hub”
If you think you know someone who might benefit from the Staying Well project, please ring Helen Enevoldson, the Staying Well Worker in North Halifax on 01422 255402 / 07912891206 or email email@example.com